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With Docker Desktop, developers using Windows 10 can not only run Windows containers, but also Linux containers.

Windows and Linux container modes

The way this works is that Docker for Desktop has two modes that you can switch between: Windows containers, and Linux containers. To switch, you use the right-click context menu in the system tray:

switch mode

When you're in Linux containers mode, behind the scens, your Linux containers are running in a Linux VM. However, that is set to change in the future thanks to Linux Containers on Windows (LCOW), which is currently an "experimental" feature of Docker Desktop. And the upcoming Windows Subsystem for Linux 2 (WSL2) also promises to make this even better.

But in this article, I'm using Docker Desktop without these experimental features enabled, so I'll need to switch between Windows and Linux modes.

Mixed container types

What happens if you have a microservices application that needs to use a mixture of Windows and Linux containers? This is often necessary when you have legacy services that can only run on Windows, but at the same time you want to benefit from the smaller size and lower resource requirements of Linux containers when creating new services.

We're starting to see much better support for mixing Windows and Linux containers in the cloud. For example, Azure Kubernetes Service AKS, allows multiple node pools allowing you to add a Windows Server node pool to your cluster.

But if you create an application using a mix of Windows and Linux container types, is it possible to run it locally with Docker Desktop?

The answer is, yes you can. When you switch modes in Docker for Desktop, any running containers continue to run. So it's quite possible to have both Windows and Linux containers running locally simultaneously.

Testing it out

To test this out, I created a very simple ASP.NET Core web application. This makes it easy for me to build both Linux and Windows versions of the same application. The web application displays a message showing what operating system the container is running in, and then makes a request to an API on the other container, allowing me to prove that both the Linux and Windows containers are able to talk to each other.

I created the app with dotnet new webapp, which uses Razor pages, and added a simple Dockerfile:

FROM mcr.microsoft.com/dotnet/core/sdk:3.0 AS build

# copy csproj and restore as distinct layers
COPY *.csproj .
RUN dotnet restore

# copy everything else and build app
COPY . .
RUN dotnet publish -c Release -o /out/

FROM mcr.microsoft.com/dotnet/core/aspnet:3.0 AS runtime
COPY --from=build /out .
ENTRYPOINT ["dotnet", "cross-plat-docker.dll"]

In the main index.cshtml razor page view, I display a simple message to show the OS version and the message received from the other container.

    <h1 class="display-4">Welcome from @System.Environment.OSVersion.VersionString</h1>
    <p>From @ViewData["Url"]: @ViewData["Message"]</p>

In the code behind, we get the URL to fetch from config, and then call it, adding its response to the ViewData dictionary.

public async Task OnGet()
    var client = _httpClientFactory.CreateClient();
    var url = _config.GetValue("FetchUrl","https://markheath.net/");
    ViewData["Url"] = url;
        var message = await client.GetStringAsync(url);
        ViewData["Message"] = message.Length > 4000 ? message.Substring(0, 4000) : message;
    catch (Exception e)
        _logger.LogError(e, $"couldn't download {url}");
        ViewData["Message"] = e.Message;

This page also has an additional GET endpoint for the other container to call. This uses a routing feature of ASP.NET Core web pages called named handler methods that was new to me. If we create a method on our Razor page called OnGetXYZ, then if we call the page route with the query string ?Handler=XYZ it will get handled by this method, instead of the regular OnGet method.

This allowed me to return some simple JSON.

public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetData()
    return new JsonResult(new[] { "Hello world", 
    Environment.OSVersion.VersionString });

I've put the whole project up on GitHub if you want to see the code.

Building the containers

To build the Linux container, switch Docker Desktop into Linux mode (you can check it's completed the switch by running docker version), and issue the following command from the folder containing the Dockerfile.

docker image build -t crossplat:linux .

And then to build the Windows container, switch Docker into Windows mode, and issue this command:

docker image build -t crossplat:win .

Running the containers

To run the contains, we need to use docker run, and expose a port. I'm setting up the app in the container to listen on port 80, and exposing it as port 57000 for the Windows container and 32770 for the Linux container.

But I'm also using an environment variable to tell each container where to find the other. This raises the question of what IP address should the Linux and Windows containers use in order to communicate with each other.

I tried a few different approaches. localhost doesn't work, and if you try using one of the IP addresses of your machine (as listed by ipconfig) you might be able to find one that works. However, I chose to go for This is a special IP address used by Docker Desktop. This worked for me with both the Windows and Linux containers able to contact each other, but I don't know whether this is the best choice.

With Docker Desktop in Linux mode, I ran the following command to start the Linux container, listening on port 32770 and attempting to fetch data from the Windows container:

docker run -p 32770:80 -d -e ASPNETCORE_URLS="http://+80" `
    -e FetchUrl="" crossplat:linux

And with Docker Desktop in Windows mode, I ran the following command to listen on port 57000 and attempting to fetch data from the Linux container.

docker run -p 57000:80 -d -e ASPNETCORE_URLS="http://+80" `
    -e FetchUrl="" crossplat:win


Here's the Linux container successfully calling the Windows container: image

And here's the Windows Container successfully calling the Linux container: image

In this post, we've demonstrated that it's quite possible to simultaneously run Windows and Linux containers on Docker Desktop, and for them to communicate with each other.

Apart from the slightly clunky mode switching that's required, it was easy to do (and that mode switching could well go away in the future thanks to LCOW and WSL2).

What this means is that it's very easy for teams that need to work on a mixture of container types to do so locally, as well as in the cloud.

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I recently needed to investigate an unexpected increase in the Azure bill for a subscription. The Azure Portal does actually offer some quite good breakdowns of cost, but in this case I wasn't able to access the cost view in the portal, so I turned to the excellent Azure CLI for help.

Retrieving consumption usage metrics

The command we need is az consumption usage list. You need to pass your subscription id or name, and the start and end date you want to analyse.

az consumption usage list --subscription "My Subscription" `
          --start-date "2019-11-01" --end-date "2019-11-28"

This returns a large amount of JSON with a breakdown per day of your usage of all the various billing metrics.

Usage information

Each entry in the JSON contains a whole host of useful information about your consumption. Here's some of the key fields:

  • consumedService - (e.g. 'Microsoft.Storage', or 'Microsoft.Web')
  • instanceId - the identifier of the Azure resource it relates to
  • instanceName - the name of the Azure resource
  • instanceLocation - (e.g. 'EU West')
  • meterId - this is a GUID referring to what is being measured. Unfortunately, I don't what the best place to look up the meaning of each meter (although I did find this spreadsheet). There is also an az consumption pricesheet command but it wouldn't return any data for my subscription.
  • product - not always filled in unfortunately, but where available, seems to essentially be the meter name (e.g. "Bandwidth - Data Transfer Out - Zone 1", or "Virtual Machines Dv2/DSv2 Series Windows - D3 v2/DS3 v2 - EU West")
  • usageStart and usageEnd - shows you what day the usage relates to
  • usageQuantity - how much you've used. The unit of measure depends on the meterId. For example, it might be a number of GB for data transfer.
  • pretaxCost - not shown for all subscription types, but where available tells you the cost for that item. I presume it shows using your preferred billing currency, which for me is GBP.
  • tags - if you're tagging your resources (which is a recommended practice), then they are shown here as well, allowing you to easily filter for all related resources.

Analysing usage

I wanted to be able to sort and filter the data in Excel, so I used the following PowerShell to create a CSV file including column headings for easy sorting and filtering:

(az consumption usage list --subscription "My Subscription" `
    --start-date "2019-11-01" --end-date "2019-11-28" `
    | ConvertFrom-Json) | ConvertTo-Csv -NoTypeInformation `
    | Set-Content "MyUsage.csv"

This helped me to easily track down exactly which resources had jumped in price, and when the price change happened.

Having this command available via the Azure CLI also makes it very easy for you to perform your own ad-hoc automated queries on Azure usage, to track trends or detect anomalies.

Want to learn more about the Azure CLI? Be sure to check out my Pluralsight course Azure CLI: Getting Started.

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I'm really pleased to announce that my latest Pluralsight course "Microservices Fundamentals" has been released. This course takes you on a journey through some of the key decisions you'll need to consider when adopting a microservices approach, starting with architecting microservices, then onto building, securing and delivering microservices, as well as looking at options for communication between microservices.

Of course, that's a lot of ground to cover in just over two hours, so I can't go into great depth on any one topic in particular, but I hope it will prove helpful for teams considering microservices to make decisions on which principles and practices are a good fit in their context.

To be honest, it is quite a daunting task to produce training course on a topic as broad-ranging as microservices. There isn't one tech stack or even one set of architectural patterns that microservices require you to adopt. I'm also well aware that there are many tools and techniques for building microservices that I've never used, so my focus in this course is sharing some of my experience (both good and bad) of attempting to adopt microservices. I've learned a lot over the last few years, but there's a lot more to learn, and the whole area of microservices is experiencing rapid change with lots of innovation like the recently announced dapr project.

I wanted to illustrate what I was teaching in the course by referring to a sample microservices application, and I settled on the idea of using the eShopOnContainers reference microservices application from Microsoft. This is an open source project that illustrates a wide variety of the techniques and approaches that I wanted to discuss in the course. The sample application uses ASP.NET Core and Docker, but of course neither are requirements for microservices, so my focus is less on the specifics of the code and more on the architectural choices and patterns. It does however serve as a great illustration of how containerizing your microservices greatly simplifies the task of getting things running locally.

Anyway, I hope you find the Microservices Fundamentals course helpful if you're considering adopting microservices. I'd love to hear your stories of the challenges and successes you're having with microservices, and what your feedback about the course. I'm also hoping to contribute a follow-up course in the Pluralsight microservices learning path, so watch this space for further updates.